Appendix 1: the fabrics and forms

The fabric of the pottery was first examined by eye and sorted into fabric groups on the basis of colour, hardness, feel, fracture, inclusions and manufacturing technique.  A sample of the sherds was further examined under an x30 binocular microscope to verify these divisions.  The size of the sample was as large as was felt necessary for each fabric group.  The fabrics codes are hierarchical in character.  The first one or two letters denotes the general fabric group, as in GR = grey ware, the second coarseness, as in GRA = fine grey ware, whilst the numbers indicate further subdivisions based on characteristics of the fabrics.  Reference is made to the National Fabric Collection (NFC) where relevant (Tomber & Dore 1998) and common ware names are given where known.  In the case of well-known traded wares, the NFC code is not supplemented by detailed descriptions.  The range of forms in each fabric group is indicated.

Colour: narrative description only

Hardness:  after Peacock 1977
soft - can be scratched by finger nail
hard - can be scratched with penknife blade
very hard - cannot be scratched

Feel: tactile qualities
smooth - no irregularities
rough  - irregularities can be felt
sandy  - grains can be felt across the surface
leathery - smoothed surface like polished leather
soapy  - smooth feel like soap

Fracture: visual texture of fresh break, after Orton 1980.   
smooth - flat or slightly curved with no visible irregularities
irregular - medium, fairly widely spaced irregularities
finely irregular - small, fairly closely spaced irregularities
laminar - stepped effect
hackly - large and generally angular irregularities


Type:  after Peacock 1977
Frequency: indicated on a 4-point scale - abundant, moderate, sparse and rare where abundant is a break packed with an inclusion and rare is a break with only one or two of an inclusion.

Sorting:  after Orton 1980

Shape: angular - convex shape, sharp corners
subangular - convex shape, rounded corners
rounded - convex shape no corners
platey - flat

Size: subvisible - only just visible at x30 and too small to measure
 fine - 0.1-0.25mm
 medium - 0.25-0.5
 coarse - 0.5-1mm
 very coarse - over 1mm

Reduced wares

BB1 Black burnished ware 1.  As Tomber and Dore 1997 BB1 DOR

The principal vessel types obtained in BB1 were, as usual, necked jars and flat-rim bowls and dishes of Hadrianic-early Antonine type.  To these may be added a smaller number of neckless, everted-rim jars, plain- and grooved-rim dishes, grooved, flat-rim bowls/dishes, bead and flanged bowls and lids. 36% of the necked jars had burnished wavy lines on their necks, a feature going out of use around the middle of the second century.  This is substantially less than at the Fairclough site where 61% of the jars had wavy line burnish on the neck and this characteristic points towards a later date range for the site.  Intersecting arcs and chevron burnish on the bowls and dishes were restricted to c 2% of the vessels, plain-rim dishes. These motifs gradually overtook the cross hatched burnish on BB1 bowls and dishes during the late second and early third century and this small percentage indicate little activity at this time on the site.  This is supported by the small numbers of grooved, flat-rim or flanged bowls (one example each) and the necked jars with more everted rims (one example) characteristic of the late second century.    Small jars, similar in form to the necked jars, were also present as were the globular neckless jars, both groups typical of the Hadrianic-early Antonine period.  Lids with zigzag and intersecting loops burnished decoration were identified but no flagons were present. Five late splayed rim jars were represented dating to third century (Gillam 1976 nos 8 and 10, dated to after cAD220 by Bidwell and Holbrook 1991, 95).

BB2 black burnished ware category 2.  As Tomber and Dore 1998 BB2.  See

One jar, as Gillam 1970 no. 139 and Marsh and Tyers 1978 type IIF.5, dated to the later second century.  BB2 jars are uncommon in the region but were present in small numbers on sites to the north such as Lancaster and Ribchester.


GRA: fine grey wares

GRA1 pale grey, sometimes the core is lighter, very hard with smooth feel and fracture.  Rare, fine quartz.

A fine fabric used to make neckless everted rim jars, including one rusticated jar, of the late first to early second century and a necked everted rim jar of similar date but probably more common in the late first century.  Two carinated, everted-rim bowls, one with an everted rim and one with a moulded rim were also found in this fabric.  The forms indicate this fabric was primarily used in the late first-early second century.  This was also the case in the Fairclough site. assemblage.

GRA1B as GRA1 but with grey surfaces and brown core. 

This small group included examples of the neckless everted-rim jars made in GRA1, an everted rim bowl, a flanged hemi-spherical bowl and the body and handle stump of a flagon or jug, perhaps a “honey pot” type vessel.  A similar date range to group GRA1 is indicated. One of the rims of a neckless everted-rim jar was slightly distorted.
GRA2 Grey with paler core. Hard, smooth feel and fracture.  Moderate very fine, subvisible quartz (at x30).

Neckless everted-rim jars including rusticated jars, one necked, everted-rim jar, a ring-and-dot beaker, a narrow-necked jar with everted rim, a reeded-rim bowl, a campanulate bowl and a lid.  The campanulate bowl is similar to Terra Nigra bowls of Pre-Flavian to Flavian date and their fabric was borderline between GRB1 and GRA2. However on the Fairclough site excavations, this form was associated with Hadrianic-early Antonine pottery. Cf at York type BB (Monaghan 1998 no. 3935) dated Flavian to Hadrianic-early Antonine and at Warrington (Webster 1992, fig.  32 nos 246, 313 and at Whitchurch in a Flavian-Trajanic and a late second century group Jones and Webster 1969, nos 124 and 148) where a Gallo-Belgic derivation is noted with continuation into the late second century, Gillam 1970 nos 211-2).   The other vessels belong to the late first to early second century.  Several waster sherds were identified in this group and these included a misfired neckless jar with short everted rim, a distorted rusticated jar and five underfired bodysherds. 

GRA4 Severn Valley type reduced ware with vesicles and black inclusions -charcoal.  Grey with reddish brown core.  Fairly hard and smooth fracture and feel, moderate very fine quartz and sparse fine red/brown and black inclusions.  Similar to SV reduced ware but probably not fine enough
Only bodysherds were identified in this group.  One sherd group of four sherds included flaked examples which may be wasters but such a condition could also result from exposure to high temperatures on a fire or pyre.

TN EGGS  brownish grey with dark grey/black surface.  Smooth, soft with slightly irregular fracture.  Sparse, medium, subrounded quartz.  Micaceous.  Eggshell ware.  GAB TN 2 Carinated beaker

GRA8  very pale grey, sometimes the core is lighter, with traces of dark grey self slip, very hard with smooth feel and fracture.  Rare, fine quartz and possibly more very fine quartz.  Rare coarse brown inclusions.  As GRA1 but lighter

Only two undiagnostic bodysherds.

GRB: medium sandy greywares

GRB1  Hard with fairly smooth feel if surface unabraded.  Sandy if abraded.  Sparse-moderate, well sorted medium subangular quartz as OAB1, sparse ill-sorted medium-fine rounded grey inclusions.  Darker grey slip/self-slip. Several campanulate bowls, including examples partially oxidised which may be wasters, circle and dot beakers, necked everted-rim jars, neckless everted rim jars, rusticated jars, lids and one narrow-necked jar with everted rim.

GRB2 Grey without obvious slip.  Sandy, hard with irregular fracture and moderate-abundant well-sorted, medium, subangular quartz.  Tends to feel coarser than GRB1. 
One reeded-rim bowl, neckless everted rim jars and necked everted rim jars, rusticated jars, rilled jars, ring-necked flagon, narrow-necked everted-rim jar and lids.  Wasters with overfired, distorted, misfired and bubbled characteristics included jar bodysherds, part of a ring-necked flagon, a necked everted-rim jar and a narrow-necked everted rim jar.  The vessels range from the late first to early second century in date.

GRB3 Grey without obvious slip with brown core or margins.  Sandy, hard with irregular fracture and moderate-abundant well-sorted, medium, subangular quartz.  Tends to feel coarser than GRB1. 
Lid, narrow-mouthed jar with everted rim, roughcast beaker, constricted-mouth jars with zones of burnished wavy line or vertical line decoration, a flange and a carinated body, both probably from bowls.

GRB5 Hard smooth grey fabric with brown core.  Moderate well-sorted rounded medium quartz.  Micaceous surface.
Three sherds, one from a narrow-mouthed jar with rebated rim.

GRB8 light grey hard with rough feel and irregular fracture.  Sparse, medium, subangular quartz and sparse, rounded medium brown inclusions
Hemispherical bowls with bead rim copying samian form 37, a sherd with barbotine dots and a necked jar with everted rim.

GRB10 dark grey/ black, often with brownish core or margin, fairly smooth (not sandy or powdery), hard with irregular fracture.  Moderate, well-sorted, medium, subrounded quartz and sparse mica.  This is similar to GRA1B but has a rather leathery feel that distinguishes it. 
One small bodysherd may be in this fabric

GRB11 Light grey with greyish white core.  Hard, smooth with irregular fracture.  Like GRA8 but coarser.  Sparse, medium. Subrounded well-sorted quartz and sparse, medium rounded grey inclusions
Seven sherds were possibly in this ware.

GRB12 grey with brown margins and grey core.  Hard, quite smooth feel and irregular fracture.  Sparse to moderate, medium, subrounded quartz, sparse, ill-sorted fine to coarse, subangular grey and cream inclusions (non-reactive) – siltstones or clay pellets, possibly some grog.  The fabric has some vesicles.  Perhaps related to group G.

One bodysherd.

GRB13 grey with brown margins and grey core.  Hard, sandy feel and irregular fracture.  Moderate, well-sorted, medium, subangular quartz, sparse, medium rounded brown inclusions, iron oxides, and rare fine white inclusions. Possibly a variant of GRB1 and 2

Narrow mouthed jar with everted rim.

GRC: coarse grey ware

GRC1 Grey hard with gritty feel and hackly fracture.  Abundant, well-sorted, medium-coarse sub rounded quartz
Bodysherds and one neckless jar with everted rim of late first-early second century date.

GRC3 Dark grey with slightly grey core.  Hard with smooth feel and hackly fracture.  Abundant well-sorted medium subrounded quartz.  Like GRC1 but finer quartz and fracture looks similar to BB1 in texture. But less quartz and like GRC2 but for colour
Undiagnostic sherds.

GRC4  light grey with brown inner margin.  Hard, smooth with hackly fracture. Abundant, ill-sorted, medium to coarse, subrounded quartz .  This could be variant of Cheshire Plains grey ware
One rim sherd from a wide-mouthed jar with everted rim and one sherd from an unusual beaker with long neck, plain rim and bulbous body.

GRC5 grey, very hard and granular with hackly fracture.  Abundant, well-sorted medium/coarse, subangular quartz.


GRC6 grey with brown core.  Hard, fairly smooth with irregular fracture.  Moderate, ill-sorted, fine to coarse, subrounded quartz. 
Chamfered bowl or dish and narrow-necked jar with everted rim.

O Oxidised wares

OAA: fine oxidised ware

OAA1 Cheshire Plain fine medium orange. Soft with powdery/sandy feel and smooth fracture.  Sparse, well-sorted, fine quartz and sparse ill-sorted fine to medium, rounded red brown inclusions
Neckless, everted-rim jars, a lid and cupped rim carinated bowl.  Some vessels in this group may be Severn Valley ware and these included narrow-mouthed jars with wedge-shaped everted and bifid rims, a bowl Webster 1976 type 50 and a vessel with straight side, flat rim and very large diameter of unparalleled form.

OAA2 Medium orange. Soft with powdery/sandy feel and irregular fracture.  Common, well-sorted, fine quartz and sparse ill-sorted fine to medium, rounded red brown inclusions.  As OAA2 but more quartz.
Rouletted beakers, bifid rim narrow-mouthed jars, and wedge-shaped everted rim wide-mouthed jars.
OAA4 orange, smooth with very smooth fracture. Sparse, ill-sorted fine to medium, subrounded quartz. with sparse medium black inclusions – possibly fine charcoal-tempered SV.  Micaceous
All body or base sherds.  One carinated beaker or bowl and one narrow necked jar represented.

OAB: medium sandy oxidised wares

OAB1 Cheshire Plain medium Orange, hard to soft with rather sandy feel and quite smooth fracture. Sparse-moderate, ill-sorted medium to coarse subangular quartz, sparse, ill-sorted, rounded red/brown and grey inclusions
Samian form 37 copies including one with rouletted decoration and a second with traces of possible mica-dusting, two flanged, hemi-spherical bowls, a ring-necked flagon and a honey pot, a neckless, everted-rim jar, a narrow necked jar with bifid everted rim and one with wedge-shaped everted rim and a roughcast beaker, probably originally colour-coated.  Bodysherds with acute lattice burnish and cordons were also present, perhaps from narrow-necked jars.

OAB2 orange, hard with sandy feel and hackly fracture.  Abundant well-sorted, medium, subrounded quartz, sparse, medium, rounded red/brown inclusions.  Sandier than most Cheshire Plain ware.  More like texture of BB1 or FLA4.
Body sherds and one everted rim from a wide-mouthed jar.

OAB4 Fairly pale orange with buff core.  Soft with powdery feel and irregular fracture Sparse, medium subrounded quartz, moderate ill-sorted fine to medium rounded and elongated voids and sparse ill-sorted rounded white inclusions.  Compares well with some SV ware.
Everted rim jug with handle

OAB5 Brownish red.  Sandy feel and irregular fracture.  Fairly hard. Abundant medium, well sorted quartz and sparse medium well sorted black and brown inclusions.  Some of black may be charcoal.  Colour is similar to SV but sandy feel is not.
Grooved-rim dish, flagon neck, rouletted sherd and samian form 37 copy.

OAB6 Hard, smooth pink fabric with cream/buff core.  Irregular fracture.  Moderate, well-sorted subrounded quartz and sparse, medium, rounded red/brown ferruginous inclusions, rare coarse rounded black inclusions
One narrow necked jar bodysherd.

One bodysherd.

OAC1 orange hard with gritty feel and hackly fracture.  Abundant, well-sorted, medium-coarse sub rounded quartz
16 body and base sherds.
OBA1 = OAA1 but buff
Short everted rim jar
OBA2 = OAA2 but buff
Bodysherds and lid.
OBB1 as OAB1 but buff
Bead-rim narrow-necked jar, rouletted beaker and campanulate bowl.
OBB2 buff with rough feel and irregular fracture.  Sparse-moderate ill-sorted medium subangular quartz, sparse, ill-sorted, angular and elongated vesicles, rare ill-sorted rounded brown inclusions.
One bodysherd
One bodysherd

SV Severn Valley type wares

SV1 Severn Valley ware. Reddish brown with virtually inclusionless matrix. Sparse fine quartz.  Micaceous.
Two everted-rim, wide-mouthed jars

SV2 Severn Valley ware with voids.  Orange with grey core.  Soft but fairly smooth. Irregular fracture.  Moderate ill-sorted elongated voids, fine to coarse, visible on surface.  Sparse mica and black inclusions.  Texture suggests subvisible quartz
A narrow-mouthed jar with everted rim.

SV3 Severn Valley ware with charcoal
One bodysherd.

DBY Derbyshire ware


FL White and white-slipped wares

FLA1 White or off white.  Probably with darker cream slip.  Fairly hard with smooth feel and fracture.  Very few inclusions, rare quartz and rounded red/brown. FLA1P pinkish.
Flagon sherds and one possible beaker bodysherd. Rim sherd from beaker with painted arcs.

FLA2 White Hard, smooth with irregular fracture Moderate, well-sorted, medium/fine, subrounded quartz and sparse, ill-sorted medium to fine red/brown inclusions.  FLA2P – pinkish.
Ring-necked flagons and one flagon with flat out bent rim and one neck cordon.  Several Gauloise 4 type rims and one miniature honeypot.

FLA3 Yellowish cream with darker slip firing yellow-buff.  Hard and smooth, slightly grainy on inside.  Irregular fracture.  Abundant, well-sorted, fine, subrounded quartz and sparse to moderate, ill-sorted, rounded medium to fine red inclusions. 

FLA4 Brockley Hill flagon/amphora ware

FLA7 Cream sometimes with grey core.  Hard with sandy feel and irregular fracture. Sparse ill-sorted, medium to fine crystalline quartz and moderate, ill sorted fine-medium rounded grey and brown inclusions
Ring-necked flagons and bodysherds including overfired examples and possible wasters

FLA10 Hard, smooth drab buff with grey core.  Irregular fracture.  Sparse quartz and coarse rounded orange inclusions.  Micaceous surfaces.
Flagon neck and a flagon handle.

FLA13 dirty cream with grey surfaces.  Hard and with lumpy feel and irregular fracture.  Sparse, subangular, medium quartz, rare, medium to coarse, rounded orange/brown inclusions.

FLA14 dirty cream surface and light grey core.  Like GRC5.  Very hard and granular with hackly fracture.  Abundant, well-sorted medium/coarse, subangular quartz.  Possibly a St Albans fabric.

FLB1 Orange, quite pale with white slip.  Soft with smooth or sandy/powdery feel and slightly irregular fracture.  Sparse well-sorted subangular quartz and rare rounded grey inclusions
Samian form 29 copy with rouletting, bead-rim lid or dish, tazze, ring-necked flagons, cupped-rim flagon, flagons with outbent flat rim and cordon on neck and everted rim flagons.  Several misfired and burnt, possibly wasters.

FLB2 Red-orange.  B=brownish red. Hard with sandy feel and irregular fracture.  Traces of white slip.  Moderate well-sorted medium, subangular quartz, sparse, coarse, rounded grey inclusions
Flagon body and base sherds, some burnt possible waster.
FLB3 fine hard brownish orange with grey core. Smooth feel and fracture.  Rare medium quartz and orange inclusions.  Micaceous with dirty white slip

F Fine wares

GMG1 as GRA1B with mica gilt

Campanulate bowls.

MG2 orange with traces of mica gilt. Fairly soft and smooth.  Irregular fracture Common, well-sorted, fine quartz and sparse ill-sorted fine to medium, rounded, red brown inclusions
Carinated bowl sherds and a carinated bowl with bell shaped rim.

MG3 Orange with traces of mica gilt.  Fairly hard with slightly sandy feel.  Orange with grey core.  Moderate, ill-sorted fine to medium subrounded quartz and sparse rounded red/brown inclusions.  Micaceous.  Coarser than MG2 but similar.  Like OAB1
Folded beaker sherds and short, everted rim neckless beaker or small jar
MG9 as OAB5 but with mica dusting.  Bodysherd only
MG10 light brown with buff/grey core with traces of mica slip.  Hard with smooth feel and fracture.  Sparse, ill-sorted, fine to coarse, subangular quartz
Reeded rim bowl.

Glazed ware

CNG GL1   Small glazed ware bodysherds, compares with Central Gaulish glazed ware 1 NFC CNG GL1 See

Colour-coated wares

Trier Tomber and Dore 1990 MOS BS.  Folded beaker.

CC1 as OBA1 with brown slip rough cast ware
Folded and bag rough cast beakers.

CC2 RHC ware Orange with brown coat.  Hard, smooth fabric with fairly smooth fracture.  Sparse, ill-sorted fine quartz and ill sorted, medium to fine red brown inclusions
Rough cast beakers

CC4 Cream with brown CC.  As CC2 but cream-buff. Hard, smooth fabric with fairly smooth fracture.  Sparse, ill-sorted fine quartz and ill sorted, medium to fine red brown inclusions
Rough cast beakers

CC 1 appears to be a local fabric within the Cheshire plain whereas CC2 and 4 are likely to be traded wares.  Symonds has discussed the difficulties of sourcing these wares without chemical and petrological examination (1990) and sources in the Argonne, Sinzig and Colchester are a possibility as well as other areas in Gaul.

CC7 orange with orange colour coat.  As OAB1 with slightly darker orange colour coat.  Local?

Bowl fragment.

The CC fabrics were overwhelmingly used to make rough cast beakers and fabric CC1 compares very well with Wilderspool roughcast beakers. CC2 was probably an Argonne import and CC4 may also be an imported fabric.  Only one sherd of CC7 was identified and this was a bodysherd, probably from a bowl.

KOL CC: Cologne colour-coated ware.  Tomber and Dore 1990 KOL CC.  Identified as likely to be from Cologne rather than Central Gaul.

NV Nene Valley colour coated ware Tomber and Dore 1990 LNV CC NV1 = white/cream paste, NV2= orange/brown paste.  Sherds of an indented beaker and a rouletted beaker.

M Mortaria

White/cream fabrics

MH  Mancetter-Hartshill

Fabric: Fine-textured, cream fabric, varying from soft to very hard, sometimes with pink core; self-coloured or with a self-coloured slip.  Inclusions usually moderate, smallish, transparent and translucent white and pinkish quartz with sparse opaque orange-brown and rarely blackish fragments; rarely white clay pellets (or re-fired pottery).  The range in fabric is, in fact, quite wide, from that with virtually no inclusions to fabrics with a fair quantity and fabrics with hard, ill-sorted black inclusions. 

The trituration grit after AD130-140 consisted of hard red-brown and/or hard blackish material (probably re-fired pottery fragments), with only very rare quartz fragments.  This grit is easy to recognize, but earlier mortaria usually have a more mixed trituration grit in which quartz and sandstone are normal components and some early second-century mortaria seem to have entirely quartz trituration grit.  The Mancetter-Hartshill fabrics of AD100-130 are variable in texture and tempering.  It is also at this period when there is difficulty in distinguishing Mancetter-Hartshill, Little Chester and Wroxeter.  This can be complicated by the fact that a few of the same potters appear to have been active at both M-H and Little Chester, but there the evidence indicates that Little Chester never developed the extensive markets which became a norm for the Mancetter-Hartshill workshops.

MVER Verulamium region

Kilns are known at Bricket Wood, Brockley Hill, Radlett and Verulamium, but unless the specific kiln-site is known or suspected, the term 'Verulamium region' is used. (Tomber and Dore 1998, 154-5)
 Fabric: a granular, usually greyish-cream fabric sometimes with pink core; often with cream to buff-cream slip; the fabric can be orange-brown but still granular. The texture was obtained by the presence or addition of a vast amount of well-sorted, small quartz inclusions, possibly with a little flint and very sparse red-brown material. The normal trituration grit consists mostly of flint with rare red-brown material and quartz.

MWROX  Wroxeter white ware mortaria

Wroxeter (location of kilns unknown, but serving Wroxeter as their primary market).  The floruit of these potteries fell within the period AD80-150/160, with a minimal later Antonine production which appears to have reached only sites in the West Midlands (Carlisle Mill mortaria, Hartley in prep).
Fabric: cream/white, usually hard, but can become soft in adverse conditions, often with a buff-cream slip.  Inclusions: moderate to fairly frequent, ill-sorted quartz, red-brown and opaque black material.  Trituration grit: mainly quartz, quartz sandstone, red-brown sandstone, black rock. 

For a fuller description of the range produced in these potteries see James 2003, 245, Fabrics 8-12; also see Tomber and Dore 1998, 179.

Orange fabrics

MOWS1/MOAB1   Wilderspool
Fabric: orange with sandy texture, sometimes with grey core; fairly soft with irregular fracture.  MOWS1 same as MOAB1 but has white slip, often only traces surviving. Inclusions: moderate, well-sorted medium, subrounded quartz, and sparse medium, rounded grey/black. 
Trituration grit: moderate, grits 1.5-5mm quartz (some polycrystalline), red/brown sandstone, igneous? grits and brown rounded grits. 

MOWS2 Probably Wilderspool
Fabric: paler orange than MOWS 1 and 3, sandy fabric, fairly soft with irregular fracture.  White slip, often only traces surviving.  Inclusions: moderate, well-sorted medium, subrounded quartz, and sparse medium, rounded grey/black inclusions. 
Trituration grit: sparse on all examples. 1.5-2mm quartz, sandstone, red/brown rounded grits and grey stone grits. 

MOWS8 Fine probably Wilderspool
Fabric: Powdery, fine-textured, orange-brown fabric with pink core and traces of cream slip.  Inclusions: very moderate, sporadic ill-sorted, quartz with some black material.  Trituration grit: small to medium, quartz, pale and red-brown sandstone, quartz sandstone and rare cream fragments (?clay pellets). As Manchester fabric 17 (Hartley and Leary 2007)

MOWS9 Cheshire Plain or Wroxeter
Bright orange with lighter core.  Thick white slip.  Soft and powdery.  Inclusions: moderate, well-sorted fine to medium, subrounded quartz.  Trituration grits: moderate polycrystalline quartz 1-2m, rare 5mm. 

MOWS10 Cheshire Plain
Fabric: orange with grey core with white slip.  Moderate medium, rounded quartz, buff clay pellets and brown ferric inclusions. 
Trituration grits: abundant, 4-5mm quartz and red/brown sandstone and grey inclusions.  The grits are rounded

MOAB  Unknown source, probably Cheshire Plains
Medium sandy orange wares of uncertain source.

Red-slip fabrics

MRS1  Wilderspool

Fabric: orange, fairly soft.  With Rhaetian red slip, usually extending over the flange and the internal cavity below the bead. 
Inclusions: sparse, well-sorted fine, subrounded quartz, and sparse medium, rounded grey/black inclusions.  Slightly micaceous. 
Trituration grit: where surviving well, trituration grits are abundant 1.5-2mm quartz, sandstone, red/brown rounded grits and grey stone grits


M. GAL  Northern France: Oise/Somme area mortarium.  There is sufficient evidence in the mass of sherds, the presence of several stamps of C Iulius Priscus and some wasters to show that this fabric was being produced at Noyon in Oise, but other potteries producing a similar fabric also existed elsewhere in the Oise/Somme area of northern France (Hartley 1998, 201; see also Tomber and Dore 1998, 75-76). 

Fabric: self-coloured, yellowish-cream fabric, sometimes with pink core; fabric softer, more powdery and more open in texture than Fabric 2.  Inclusions: moderate, tiny to small, quartz, red-brown and black material.  Trituration grit: usually flint, quartz with occasional red-brown.  , none extant on this example

A Amphora

Dr 20 Dressel 20 one rim sherd. Martin-Kilcher 1987 no. 89 dated cAD 110-150
Gal AMP Gallic amphora types, Tomber and Dore 1997 GAL AM.  Where identifiable these were from Narbonnensian Gauloise 4 amphorae.
AMP VER Verulamium amphora. Bodysherds are not always distinguishable from FLA4 flagons and the number of sherds are likely to be more than indicated.  Tomber and Dore 1997 VER WH.

G Grog-tempered wares

G2 Hard pinkish buff with grey core.  Bumpy feel and irregular fracture. Sparse medium quartz and sparse to moderate coarse grey, brown and white inclusions – grog?
Early pink grog type fabric. Jar bodysherds

G4 orange with grey core.  Hard, slightly sandy feel.  Sparse, medium, subrounded quartz and rare, coarse, rounded grey and buff clay pellets/grog.
Storage jar.

G5 orange with grey core. Smooth with irregular fracture.  Sparse, medium, subrounded quartz, ill-sorted, coarse to medium, rounded grog and rare black organics.
Large storage or narrow-necked jar

G2,G4 and G5 may all be variants of a single ware elated to early pink grogged ware from the south and west Midlands known around Towcester (Booth and Green 1989) and similar to wares at Metchley (Hancocks 2004 fabric 10 and 11, I am grateful to Jane Evans for help with these fabrics)

MALV   Malvernian ware. Tomber and Dore 1997 MAL RE A.  Small scraps only.

CT Shell-tempered wares

CTA1 buff with grey core. Hard, vesicular fabric with fairly smooth, soapy feel.  Abundant fairly well-sorted medium platey vesicles and white inclusions (shell).  Similar to fabric in Northamptonshire. Storage jar with squared bead rim.

CTA2  late shelly ware.  CTA2OX were oxidised.  Tomber and Dore 1997 HAR SH Harrold? Late shelly wares with triangular undercut rims and everted rims.