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1 gold Aureus = 25 Denarii
1 silver Denarius = 4 Sestertii
1 brass Sestertius = 2 Dupondii
1 brass Dupondius = 2 Asses
1 copper Ass = 2 Semisses
1 copper Semis = 2 copper Quadrantes
There is evidence to suggest that, at various times in the late 1st/early 2nd centuries both types of soldier were associated with Middlewich although not necessarily permanently stationed there.
Basic pay = 300 Denarii a year paid in 4 instalments of 74 denarii (Stipendia) in January, April, July and October. However of each stipend 62 denarii were withheld to cover stoppages and debts of food, clothing and arms and to put some in the legion’s savings bank for retirement. The remainder (13 denarii) was given to the soldier as pocket money.
Additional = Occasionally the state gave soldiers special bounties to commemorate things like the accession of a new emperor.
Payment in kind = In later times, when the cost of inflation made for difficulties, the state increasingly augmented pay with payment in kind (e.g. corn, salt, land etc.)
Basic infantry pay = 100 denarii a year. As with the legionaries, broken down into stipends, with stoppages, savings etc. plus occasional bounties.
Basic pay for soldiers in part-mounted regiments = 150 denarii a year
However, cavalry units described as CIVIVM ROMANORVM (Roman Citizens) were specially favoured. This is relevant to Middlewich because the ALA CLASSIANA was such a unit, (as recorded on the Middlewich diploma on display at Middlewich Library)
Their basic pay = 200 denarii a year (i.e. 4 stipends of 50 denarii etc.)
Minerva who is depicted on one of the coins was taken up by the Celts. She metamorphoses into Britannia later and was on the British penny (written as 1d) up to decimalisation in 1971.
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